British Prime Minister Boris Johnson appealed Tuesday for resolve and a "spirit of togetherness" through the winter as he unveiled new restrictions on everyday life to suppress a dramatic spike in coronavirus cases.
Warning that the measures could last for six months, Johnson voiced hope that "things will be far better by the spring" when a vaccine and mass testing could be in place.
The most high-profile change centered on pubs, restaurants and other entertainment venues in England, which from Thursday must close at 10 pm In a change of emphasis, Johnson urged people to work from home where possible.
He said further restrictions might have to be introduced if people fail to abide by the rules.
"If we follow these simple rules together, we will get through this winter together," Johnson said in a prime-time televised address.
"But now is the time for us all to summon the discipline, and the resolve, and the spirit of togetherness that will carry us through." In a speech with deliberate echoes of World War II communal spirit, Johnson said that "never in our history has our collective destiny and our collective health depended so completely on our individual behavior."
The other nations of the UK - Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland - also tightened restrictions, going further in some cases.